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Whakapapa or tātai are genealogies and carry great mana for all Māori. It is requested that all users treat these with the greatest respect for in many cases they are made available here for the very first time to a wider audience. Many of these tātai have been handed down to the site administrator as part of oral family history and some were also recorded in the period of the 1880s-1890s in a series of manuscript books along with other historical narratives. All of the old lines of tātai conclude with the administrator's grandmother, Hoana Hohaia. Hoana's brothers and sisters clearly had their own tātai and their uri are responsible for completing and maintaining their own lines. Generally, Māori people do not share tātai with persons who are not related to the tūpuna named. An exception is made in this case to facilitate access for many Patuone uri all around the world. All descendants are welcome to provide updating tātai which complete more contemporary linkages and lines of descent. These should be addressed to the site administrator in the first instance. All contributors with be listed to acknowledge contributions. (Note: the term tātai is used much more in Ngāpuhi than whakapapa. When the administrator was growing up, kaumātua never used anything but tātai when speaking about genealogies. On this site, however, both terms are used interchangeably).
Please Note: These tātai are a work in progress. As additional information is provided to augment that already known by the administrator, this section will be updated and re-ordered. Please feel free to contact us with your additions and corrections. All the old tātai can also be added to as more information emerges. With generations following that of the children of Hohaia and Kateao Te Takupu, these are in more recent memory and generally, can be supported by known birth and death dates and official documents such as birth and death records. There are also detailed family records held by descendants all over the world. If those who hold such records are happy to share, these can be put up on the site and all uri of Patuone can see how they link up. There are some, however, who do not feel comfortable with this. This is their decision. The many linkages are extensive and endlessly fascinating, especially with tomo arrangements which occurred up to the administrator's father, Manira's, generation. There are also, however, records held which are not correct. By putting up all records and pointing out where the facts are not clear or remain to be corroborated, we are all able to share in a collective building role. Some family members prefer that their details should not be placed here for public access. They can therefore look after their own.
There is some disagreement about birth dates and order for Patuone's grandchildren and there are some descendants who place great emphasis on claiming the tuakana or mātāmua line, the so-called senior line. The senior line is merely a quirk of birth: the true line of power is the mana line and this is something descendants cannot claim. Mana is awarded by the tūpuna.
In relation to the birth dates for Patuone's grandchildren, some descendants claim specific years when there are no actual records. Māori births were not routinely recorded in the manner of European births until 1913. Also, much information related to birth years, recorded on tombstones and memorials is simply incorrect, resulting from imperfect memories, guesses and approximations. The administrator believes that his grandmother, Hoana Hohaia, was born c.1863. Her last child (the administrator's father, Manira) was born on 9 December 1911. Thus, assuming that Hoana was at the end of child-bearing days in 1911, this would give her an approximate age of 48 and on her death in 1935, an age of 72. Given that she was the third born of Hohaia and Kateao Te Takupu's children, although others claim birth years for older sister Te Tawaka as 1845 and younger sister Ani Kaaro as 1848, the administrator believes these claims are far too early. The matter is complicated by the fact that although it is believed that Hohaia was born c.1825, other sources suggest 1835. A more likely scenario is that Patuone Hohaia and Te Tawaka Hohaia were born in the late 1850s. Ani Kaaro is also decribed in the early 1900s as being about 40. A more likely year for her birth is c.1865 with the remaining siblings thereafter. If more concrete evidence can be produced, these details will, of course, be updated.
This has been covered in the respective sections on Ngāti Hao and Ngāpuhi and will not be repeated here.
As indicated, Tapua, the father of Patuone and Nene traced descent direct from Uenuku, the first-born son of Rahiri and his first wife Ahuaiti. Ngāti Kahu is also significant in Tapua's tātai. Apart from the Hokianga origins, Tapua’s established base was the Kerikeri inlet where he had a pa at Ōkura, a tidal reach of the inlet backing onto Waitangi. Te Kawehau, mother of Patuone and Nene traced descent from Rahiri through Kaharau, his second son from the union with Whakaruru. The basic whakapapa is:
DESCENT OF PATUONE
* Te Ngawa appears in some tātai as Te Ngaua. Spelling variations may occur with other names also, Maui and Mawi, for example.
The point has been made in many sources about the importance within Ngāpuhi of descent from Rahiri who was born within the period 1475-1525. The various family tātai cited here show how Patuone’s descent comes through multiple lines from both Uenuku and Kaharau, respectively first and second born sons. These multiple tātai also show clearly the close kinship of all the famous rangatira of Ngāpuhi.
The reason for Rahiri’s pre-eminence probably relates more to his standing as eponymous ancestor and linkages to preceding tūpuna rather that for any great military prowess. It was Kaharau in particular who founded the military might of Ngāpuhi and together with his older half-brother Uenuku, created a dynasty of famous chiefs and what was to become the largest iwi confederation in New Zealand.
The administrator’s collection of archives includes considerable detail in relation to the Whakanekeneke Block located in the hills above Waihou Valley. The shares in Whakanekeneke were finally partitioned in 1915 and divided amongst Hohaia's children, Eru Patuone Hohaia, Te Tawaka Hohaia, Hoana Hohaia, Ani Kaaro Hohaia, Kaioha Hohaia, Raupia Hohaia and Raunatiri Hohaia, as a result of a decision within the Native Land Court. Subsequently, various Whakanekeneke sub-blocks were to figure in various deals related to the taking of land for public works, notably the main north railway.
The final partitioning was subject to two decisions and subsequent orders within the Māori Land Court dated 29 September 1914. There had been original examinations within the then Native Land Court and Appellate Court in 1899 and 1900 respectively and a further Court consideration of matters in 1908. At stake was considerable disputation between Ani Kaaro and Te Tawaka on the one hand and the rest of their brothers and sisters on the other, over the way in which shares in the eight parts of the Whakanekeneke Block had been divided up by Hohaia. Both Te Tawaka and Ani Kaaro had been allocated more shares by Hohaia, with an added complication that Hohaia had also allocated shares to Ani Kaaro's husband, Ngakete Hapeta. In the view of Hohaia and Ani Kaaro, Ngakete's descent within Ngāti Hao entitled him to shares. Another issue was that Hohaia had allocated shares but stood himself outside of the allocation, meaning that the Court then had to decide on how his shares would be distributed. In the event, shares were allocated to Ngakete in the final decision and also to his brothers and uncle and various other members of Ngāti Hao in addition to the Hohaia children. However, although it was decided that Ani Kaaro should receive more shares for the fact of her having maintained ahi kaa over the years and also that Te Tawaka would receive more shares in accordance with the wishes of Hohaia, the matter created great division within the family. The other siblings clearly felt that they had been unfairly treated by their father. It seems obvious from the records and evidence available that Hohaia's decision-making capabilities had been questioned and it may reflect the outcome of some medical condition which affected him prior to his death in 1901. It is also clear that Ani Kaaro had an imperfect knowledge of key tātai, this fact being noted by the Court in the 1914 Judgement. As a fact, it is also interesting. It raises a question about Ani Kaaro's capacities and the possibility that she bullied her siblings for her own ends. As a major force within the family, she may also have engendered certain fears, given an accepted tohunga matakite status.
Of Raunatiri, the teina of the Hohaia family, little is known or recorded in the author’s family archives. Raunatiri married Taati Pairama and from this union came Korowainga. The name Raunatiri is a Māori transcription of an English name ‘Rountree’. In 1953, the author’s father, Manira, for consideration of £120 plus £1 commission, purchased a share of land in Puhipuhi 4B S.1, recorded as belonging to Raunatiri. The official Department of Māori Affairs receipt for the purchase (No.18209) is dated 8th July 1953 and is described as being a “vesting order Puhipuhi 4B S.1 Block”. The vendor is indicated as Korowainga Rowntree. There are, however, many descendants of Raunatiri on the Rountree line including four great-great grandchildren of Patuone. Raunatiri also had a keen sense of the political. Apart from the deep ancestral links between the Patuone family, Ngāpuhi and Tainui through Ngāti Paoa to the Kahui Ariki, which might in part explain Ani Kaaro’s support of the Kingitanga movement, it is interesting to note that younger brother, Raunatiri, was in no way prepared to support any mana outside his own and that of Ngāpuhi. In July 1903, during a visit to the Taranaki area, he wrote a letter to the Fielding Star, which was reprinted in the Hawera and Normanby Star:
I have read in your paper the words of Parata in the House, and of Taiaroa in the Council, about Mahuta. I am a visitor to your district, but would wish to state in your paper, as a descendant of Eru Patuone (my grandfather) and my great uncle (Tamati Waaka Nene) that the words of Parata and Taiaroa are etikaana [e tika ana]. This is to say: Mahuta is only a chief of his tribe, and I, as a Ngāpuhi, scorn the idea of his vaunted kingship. Hawera & Normanby Star, Vol.XLVI, Issue 7739, 13 July 1903, p.2. (Note: the use of the Māori terminology, ‘e tika ana’ (it is true) is an assertion that statements made previously by Parata and Taiaroa are true. Mahuta was the 'Māori King' within the Kingitanga movement in Tainui).
The interesting thing about Raunatiri's comments, along with those of Parata and Taiaroa, is that they reflect an early reaction to any suggestion that the 'Māori King' had any jurisdiction outside of the Tainui confederation. There was also an early understanding in Ngāpuhi that the Kingship role would be shared around and not monopolised forever by Tainui. In the administrator's experience, during the 1950s, kaumātua in Ngāpuhi talked about this a great deal. The view was that the Kingship should have come to Ngāpuhi as part of a cycling and sharing process.
Ko te whaiti a Ripia!
This pepehā (saying) was uttered by Patuone in response to a taunt from his relative Heke, prior to the battle of Okaihau. When Heke saw that the numbers of the Patuone and Nene forces were small, he suggested that they would do better to return to their homes and not risk their lives. In response, Patuone’s pepehā invokes the name of his grandmother, Ripia and is a direct response to the challenge issued by Heke: the clear message was this: we may be few in number but we are strong and valiant in battle. The invocation by Patuone of Ripia is highly significant and provides clear evidence of the powerful mana and high tohunga status of his grandmother.
Apart from Patuone’s older brothers Te Anga and Ruanui who were killed in battle with Ngāti Pou of Whangaroa while in a taua with Tapua, Nene and their sister Tari complete the Tapua family, Tari being the oldest. Another half-brother Wi Waka Turau who died while a comparatively young man, was the son of Te Kawehau by her second husband. Wi Waka Turau, however, was present with Nene and Patuone at a number of fights, including that at Ruapekapeka and was still a key part of the Ngāti Hao leadership.
Tari married the Pēwhairangi chief Te Wharerahi, brother of Rewa and Moka and son of Te Auparo who were of Ngāi Tāwake. Te Auparo was killed in one of the many complex disputes amongst close descent groups, in this case, Te Ngare Raumati and Ngāi Tawake. Her killing in a cultivation of keha (turnips) gave rise to the name Patukeha. Te Karehu, the sister of Te Wharerahi, Rewa and Moka, was taken by the Te Ngare Raumati party and subsequently killed and eaten 1. Like Patuone, Te Wharerahi was a great warrior and renowned peacemaker and thus his marriage to Tari created a significant alliance with Patuone and Nene which also formalised another link between Hokianga and Pēwhairangi 2.
Tapua, the father of Patuone and Nene traced descent direct from Uenuku, the first-born son of Rahiri and his first wife Ahuaiti.
Ko ēnei aku tātai mai i a Patuone.
The direct whakapapa taken through to the administrator’s grandmother is:
Te Kawehau, mother of Patuone and Nene traced descent directly from Kaharau, the second-born son of Rahiri from his wife Whakaruru. The direct wkakapapa taken through to the administrator’s grandmother is:
Another line coming down to Te Kawehau from Kaharau illustrates how chiefly bloodlines were managed through often extensive tomo (arranged marriages):
Sissons et al offer a different version of this whakapapa in relation to Rahiri. Their version has Tuwharepapa and Tuwharekakaho descending from Ruanui and Nukutawhiti, as the offspring of their respective progeny Korakonuiarua and Moerewa. Thus, their implication is that Tuwharepapa and Tuwharekakaho precede Rahiri. This implies two different people with the same name in later generations 3. Another significant factor in this whakapapa is Ruangāio whose progeny became part of the move of various components of Ngāpuhi towards Whangarei.
Patuone’s grandmother, Ripia appears as one of the many strong women of Ngāpuhi who wielded great power and influence aside their men folk 4. As indicated, Patuone’s reference to her in his pepehā was a direct acknowledgement of her status and power. Given Patuone’s father Tapua’s ranking as rangatira and important role as tohunga it is probable that Ripia also was a powerful tohunga in her own right. Ripia traced descent from another tūpuna called Ruangangana:
Another line from Maikuku is:
This differs from other published tātai in that it gives Ruakino—missing from all others—and also indicates that from Ruakino come Maru, Papaora and another sibling simply given as ‘he teina’ (a younger sibling).
The close descent from Rahiri, in common with all the chiefly lines of Ngāpuhi, is further reinforced by the tātai of Patuone’s grandfather, Takare:
Yet other tātai provide further details about close descent and kinship: these relate to Patuone’s mother, Te Kawehau and provide further connections back to Kaharau:
A further line to Te Kawehau comes down from Ranginui and includes the tūpuna Tautahi, from whom Ngāti Tautahi derive their name:
Hohaia, Patuone's son from Te Hoia, married Kateao Te Takupu. Kateao’s tātai shows another strong link with the Hongi line back to Kaharau and Rahiri: Te Hotete is also the father of Hongi. It is clear, however, that Takupu and Hongi could only have been half brothers and that Takupu’s mother was other than Hongi’s. It is known that Te Hotete had at least five wives:
Kateao Te Takupu was the connection through whom the extensive lands at Whakapara, Puhipuhi and Waiotu came to the children of her marriage to Hohaia. Kateao connected to Ngāti Hau and Ngāti Wai who are closely related.
A related tātai shows additional linkages related to this, ending with Hongi’s son Hare Hongi and daughter, Harata Rongo who married Heke:
In turn, Hongi’s senior wife Turikatuku, in keeping with the purity of lines from Rahiri has the following descent, which shares common linkages with another branch from Ngāpuhi to Tainui through the Torongare line but branches off at Te Rongopatutaonga:
These old whakapapa show some more extensive linkages to other significant tūpuna of Ngāti Kahu and relate to Patuone’s second wife, Te Hoia. . Tapua, father of Patuone also had connections to Ngāti Kahu:
Papanui’s sibling Maui has the following descendants:
Te Hoia, Patuone’s second wife, was mother of Hohaia. Her tātai includes descent from another tūpuna, Mirukaiwha and also includes the tupuna Tohia who was regarded as a significant Ngāti Hao tupuna:
and in a clarification of parentage:
While these whakapapa from Tama relate to the above, they also link to Te Kawehau, Patuone’s mother:
Apart from the fact that these tātai have never previously been published outside family documentation, they illustrate some important features worthy of comment. As tātai, they were intended to be recited, indicated by the use of ta and ko, effectively meaning in context, from and came. Kati tenei or whakamutunga indicate the conclusion of a line 5.
The maintenance of close and tight bloodlines was a particular feature of the Māori aristocracy and these tātai illustrate the point very clearly. As much as Ngāpuhi diversified through external marriage, they also maintained these close descent lines from Rahiri, Uenuku and Kaharau through the inter-marriage of cousins and other kin. In this way, Ngāpuhi tuturu lines were maintained with fullest integrity.
As indicated previously, another important matter in relation to tātai, at least for some, is to work out when certain tūpuna lived. Teachings given to the administrator indicated that these details are really insignificant: tūpuna are tūpuna regardless of all other details. Specific dates are really only relevant in attempting to establish rights of occupation to certain places. However, for those whose interests are in dating specific people, one method used is to count back, allowing twenty five years to thirty years per generation to arrive at an approximate date.
Patuone’s grandmother Ripia also figures prominently in the oral history related to the family and provides another link with the spiritual inheritance and legacy of Patuone. Ripia had a stillborn child called Te Tuhi, in old Māori terms, this being a major tohu. Thereafter, this child would visit his living kin in the form of a kehua, an apparition, and it was a clear intention that Patuone should become the medium of connection between the worlds of the living and the dead. This, however, Patuone resisted. While there exists no explanation about the particular circumstances of and motives for this resistance on the part of Patuone, it probably relates to his fulfilling predictions made about him at his birth and also a rejection of the darker side of the priestly arts 6.
Another interpretation is that Te Tuhi was a trickster in the tradition of Maui. Also Tai Tokerau is regarded by Māori from other iwi as being somewhere to avoid being alone after dark unless in the company of tangatawhenua: kaumātua from other iwi have suggested that this is because of the pathways to Te Reinga and closeness of Te Reinga itself 7.
Reference to various family tātai dating from the 1880s show how many tūpuna link up, adding the human dimension to various events and migrations. As is typical, these linkages are extremely complex and extensive and take a lot of working through as they do not necessarily show complete connections and in fact, some may directly contradict others. Indeed, the tātai related to the Whangarei whanui area illustrate very well some of the challenges discussed earlier in basing and constructing a clear history on the details and ‘evidence’ of whakapapa alone especially in relation to orthography, the repetition of names over different generations and multiple marriages.
Apart from the fact that Ahuaiti, Rahiri’s first wife and mother of Uenuku was from Ngāi Tāhuhu and Ngāti Manu, another Whangarei area connection back to Ngāpuhi tuturu and Rahiri came through the Ruangāio line from Kaharau.
In the tātai related to Whangarei, one key rangatira to emerge is Kūkupa, father of Tirarau. Kūkupa was born c.1775 at Taurangakotuku, located on the northern bank of the Otaika River and near Toetoe, overlooking the Whangarei Harbour 8.
Another name which appears in tātai is Motatau, however, for all the expectation provided by the name and its association with a significant place for Ngāti Hine, he does not emerge as a prominent figure at all in terms of recorded or oral deeds and exploits: apart from his appearing in the tātai and working through various linkages, there is little archival or oral history detail about him. He does not appear directly in any of the administrator’s Rahiri tātai which cover all the chiefly lines from Rahiri. It is likely that the connections, given the name Motatau, are through tātai more specific to Ngāti Hine or Ngāti Manu. Together with Waiomio and Taumarere, Motatau and Kawakawa are key areas and define the rohe of Ngāti Hine and Ngāti Manu so this bears further exploration. Having said this, however, in the administrator’s tātai, there is still no clear detail. Kawiti’s son, Maihi Paraone Kawiti of Ngāti Hine does appear in one of the tātai groups, as does Hineamaru who is the tūpuna from whom they derive their hapū name. Hineamaru’s Ngāpuhi descent is from Rahiri and Uenuku through the marriage of Torongare and Hauhaua. The following tātai from the administrator’s grandfather Okeroa illustrate the key connections:
Specifically to Nehe and Motatau the tātai are:
The significance of these tātai is that collectively, they indicate wide linkages throughout much of Tai Tokerau. In the above tātai, for example, Te Tatua is mentioned, together with his wife, Te Oneho. Te Tatua was a rangatira of Ngāti Wai and Ngāti Toki and his people lived on Tawhitinui (The Poor Knights Islands) off the coast and north of Whangarei. The two islands which make up Tawhitinui are Tawhitirahi and Aorangi. In 1820 when Te Tatua was away fighting with Hongi, the rangatira Waikato of Te Hikutu in the Hokianga, attacked Tawhitinui and decimated the population. Te Tatau had allegedly insulted Waikato and the latter, having been advised by an escaped slave that the islands were largely undefended, decided to seek utu for the insult. Tawhitinui was abandoned after this although Te Tatua’s wife Oneho and son Hori Wehiwehi both survived the Te Hikutu raid. Te Oneho and her daughter were taken as hostages by Te Hikutu, however, were recognised as relatives by a local rangatira during a stop at Whangaroa. This rangatira helped them escape. In fact, Oneho was a direct descendant of the rangatira Nehe, through Motatau and Te Kamo. She was a daughter of Te Taotahi and Te Ao-Hei-Awa.
Significantly also, many of these old tātai indicate rangatira who are often not mentioned in any other tātai or historical accounts. This again indicates the importance of the family records maintained by the site administrator. In some accounts, Tawhitinui is confused with Tawatawhiti which is the peninsula stretching to the Whangarei Heads from Parahaki.
Motatau and Te Kamo’s son Te Taotahi was born c.1750. It is likely that Motatau and his people were part of the general drift southwards, whether their connection was partially through Ngāti Ruangāio or elsewhere. It would be reasonably expected, however, that if this were the case, more extensive detail of them would be recorded in whakapapa. Ruangāio is in the Rahiri line as are many others who became associated by name with specific hapū. The administrator’s tātai suggest that Motatau was a grandson of the union of Kokako and Ruatangihia and that their son Nehe was his father 9. Part of the old and extensive whakapapa in the administrator’s possession provides evidence although this is further complicated by multiple marriages, particularly in the case of whakapapa relevant to the Whangarei area and especially to Te Parawhau 10, Patuharakeke and other hapū and iwi groupings linked through inter-marriage:
Other tātai of use here are traced from Taurahaiti and show: